Gerard-Graham-Ling microelectrode: for some time also known as Ling-Gerard microelectrode, glass capillary microelectrode In 1942. Judith Graham, A. J. Carlson and R. W. Gerard first reported the use of fine-tipped glass capillary electrode for the measurement of the resting potential of frog muscle cells. War slowed down the progress, so that the electric potential as reported in 1946 in Graham's Ph.D. thesis (and elsewhere) varied over the range of 41 to 80 mV, too scattered for quantitative determinations.
An alternative and controversial hypothesis to the membrane and membrane pump theories, the Association Induction Hypothesis is a claim related to the properties and activities of microscopic assemblies of molecules, atoms, ions and electrons of the smallest unit of life called nano-protoplasm.
Ling wrote books describing his hypothesis in 1962 and 1984 and later self-published other books
In 1965, Ling added his Polarized-Oriented Multilayer (PM or POM) theory of cell water to the Association Induction Hypothesis. The theory argues that cell water is polarized and oriented and thus dynamically structured.
More recent studies by Gerald Pollack (2001, 2013) and Mae-Wan Ho (2008, 2012) have confirmed the structured nature of cell water and some scientists such as Vladimir Matveev (2012) continue to explore the ideas that Ling introduced in the 1960s.Download PDF
|1||Debunking the Alleged Ressurrection of the Sodium Pump Hypothesis|
|2||A New Theoretical Foundation for the Polarized-Oriented Multilayer Theory of Cell Water|
|3||Oxidative Phosphorylation And Mitochondrial Physiology: A Critical Review of Chemiosmotic Theory, And Reinterpretation By The Association-Induction Hypothesis|
|4||An Updated and Further Developed Theory and Evidence for the Close-contact, One-on-one Association of Nearly All Cell K + with ß - γ-Carboxyl Groups of Intracellular Proteins|
|5||A Convergence of Experimental and Theoretical Breakthroughs Affirms the PM theory of Dynamically Structured Cell Water on the Theory’s 40th Birthday|
|6||History of the Membrane (Pump) Theory of the Living Cell from Its Beginning in Mid-19th Century to Its Disproof 45 Years Ago — though Still Taught Worldwide Today as Established Truth|
|7||An Unanswered 2003 Letter Appealing on Behalf of all Mankind to Nobel Laureate Roderick McKinnon to Use His Newfound Fame and Visibility to Begin Restoring Honesty and Integrity to Basic Biomedical Science by Rebutting or Correcting Suspected Plagiarism in His Nobel-Prize-Winning Work|
|8||A 2004 Unanswered Letter to the Economist Magazine Requesting a Retraction (And Apology)|
|9||Nano-protoplasm: the Ultimate Unit of Life|
|10||A Historically Significant Study that at Once Disproves the Membrane (Pump) Theory and Confirms that Nano-protoplasm Is the Ultimate Physical Basis of Life—Yet so Simple and Low-cost that it Could Easily Be Repeated in Many High School Biology ClassroomsWorldwide|
|11||Truth in Basic Biomedical Science Will Set Future Mankind Free|
|12||A Quantitative Theory of Solute Distribution in Cell Water According to Molecular Size. Gilbert N. Ling|
|13||In Response to an Open Invitation for Comments on AAAS Project 2061’s Benchmark Books on Science|
|14||A 400 Word Summary of the Association-Induction Hypothesis|
|15||A 42 Page Summary of The Association-Induction Hypothesis|
|16||Why Science Cannot Cure Cancer and AIDS without Your Help ?|